CODE System: Historical development
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CINP AND ITS PAST
Missing from the Membership Directory
Deceased, Retired, or Dropped?
Thomas A. Ban
What evolved into CINP’s history committee started out in 1986 as an informal collaboration between Hanns Hippius, Ole Rafaelsen, and I. After Ole Rafaelsen’s untimely death, Hippius and I continued. We began by asking presidents of the college between 1957 and 1986 to write their reminiscences of the biennial congresses that occurred under their stewardship (Ban and Hippius, 1988). However, this very simple goal ran into trouble when the name and address of F.G. Valdecasas, one of the eight past presidents from the period, who were still living, could not be found in the then current CINP membership directory. This was a surprise since Valdecasas was not only a past president, but also an honorary member. In our next project we invited the living founders of CINP to contribute a paper on their early experiences in the field (Ban and Hippius, 1991). Again we ran into a similar predicament when the name and address of W.A. Stoll, one of the eighteen surviving founders at the time, and treasurer of the 1st and 2nd executive committees, was no longer listed in the membership directory.
In both instances, the problem was resolved with the help of colleagues who knew their whereabouts. Then, in 2004, while preparing a biographic register to complement our four volumes autobiographical series on the history of psychopharmacology and CINP (Ban, Healy and Shorter 1998, 2000, 2002, 2004) we ran into the same kind of difficulty when trying to contact many of those elected to membership in the 1950s, 60s and 70s. In fact, 24 of the 76 contributors (from the CINP membership) to volume 1 of the series were no longer listed in the 2004-2006 membership directory. To the best of our knowledge, we thought that only six had passed away: Zoltan Boszormenyi, Herman Denber, Leo Hollister, Heinz Lehmann Miroslav Protiva, and David Tedeschi. The other 18, we assumed, had retired, stopped paying their membership dues, and consequently were dropped from the membership directory: Antonio Balestrieri (1964-Italy), Olga Benesova (1970-Czech Republic), Marcel Bickel (1968-Switzerland), Barry Blackwell (1972-USA), Jean-Francois Dreyfus (1976-France), Daniel Ginestet (1964-France), Paul Grof (1968-Canada), Jean Guyotat (1958- France), Hanfried Helmchen (1964-Germany), Alexander Karczmar 1970-USA), Pierre Lambert (1958-France), Izyaslav Lapin (1994-Russia), Allen Mirsky (1966-USA), Alberto Oliverio (1968-Italy), Trevor Silverstone (1970-UK), Pierre Simon (1966-France), John Smythies (1960s-USA), and .George Ulett (1970s-USA)..
Prompted by the recognition that approximately 1 of 3 contributors to volume 1 were no longer listed in the directory, we discovered that out of the 519 members included in the 1977-78 directory, 334 were missing in 2004-2006. The list of those missing follows:
Abel E, Agnoli A, Allert MI, Amdisen A, Ansell GB, Asada S
Bailly R, Balestrieri A, Bapna JS, Baro F, Baruk H*, Bein HJ, Benesova O, Benkert O, Bergener M, Berner P, Bickel M, Biel JH, Bignami G, Blackwell B, Bobon DP*, Bobon J*, Bohacek N*, Boissier RJ*, Boleloucky ZJ, Bordeleau JM, Boutillier H, Boszormenyi Z*, Brill H*, Brimblecombe RW, Brodie BB*, Brousolle P, Brugmans J, Buckett WR, Burki HR, Buser P
Caldwell J, Carranza J, Carvalhal Ribas J, Cerletti A, Chrusciel TL, Ciurezu TC, Clark WG, Clouet D, Coirault R, Collard J, Colonna L, Cook L, Coper H, Corson SA*, Cottereau M-J, Crammer JL, Crane G, Cuenca E
Dasberg HH, De Albuquerque-Fortes JR, De Barahona Fernandez HJ, De Buck RP*, Degkwitz R, Delay J*, De Maio D, De Martis D, Denber HCB*, Deniker P*, De Oliveira Bastos P, Dewhurst WG, Di Carlo R, Di Carlo V, Dille JM, Di Mascio A*, Dom RJ, Domenjoz R*, Don A, Downing RW, Dreyfus J-F, Dufour H, Dugas M
Engelhardt D*, Engelmeier M-P, Escande MM, Essman WB, Estrada-Robles U, Everett GM
Faurbye A*, Fazio C, Feer H, Feldman H, Feline A, Fischer-Cornelssen KA*, Flament J, Fleischauer J, Floru L, Folch-Pi J, Forrest IS*, Forn J, Fragoso-Mendes JM, Friedhoff AJ*, Freedman DZ*, Freeman HL, Freyhan FA*, Fujimori M
Gantt HW*, Gatti GL, Gayral L, Gerle B, Giberti F, Ginestet D, Giurgea C*, Goldman D*, Goldstein M*, Goldwurm G, Goujet M-A, Gouret C, Green JP, Greenblatt M*, Grof P, Gross H, Grossman SP, Guy W*, Guyotat J
Haase HJ*, Haefely W, Hall GH, Hamilton M*, Hardesty AS, Harrer G, Helmchen H, Hoffmeister F, Holden JMC, Hole G, Hollister LE*
Idestrom C-M, Irwin S, Isbell H*, Itoh H*
Jacob J, Jacobsen E*, Janssen P*, Janzarik W, Jarvik M, Jenner FA, Johansson B, Jones RT, Jouvet M, Joyce CRB, Joyce-Basseres D, Jus A*
Kalinowsky LB*, Kanowski S, Karczmar A, Kety SS*, Keup P, Key BJ, Kido R, Kielholz P*, Killam KF*, King AR, Kirkegaard A, Klerman GL*, Kletzkin M, Kline NS*, Kobayashi T*, Kramer JC, Kranz H, Kreiskott H, Kryspin-Exner K, Kumar R*, Kunkel H, Kurihara M, Kurland A
Labhardt FA, Ladewig D, Ladisich W, Lambert C, Lambert P, Langner E, Lanssen JB, Lassenius B, Launey J, Lecomte JM, Le Douarec JC, Lehmann HE*, Lemberger T, Lesse S, Leuner H, Levine J, Levy J, Lienert GA, Loew DM, Longo V, Lopez-Ibor AJJ, Lundquist GAR*, Lunn V
Maj J*, Maller O, Mariategui J, Mattke DJ, Maxwell C, Maxwell DR, May PRA*, McClure D*, McDonald RK, Mercier J, Mesiha FS, Metysova J, Meyer HH*, Mihoviilovic M*, Mirsky A, Moller Nielsen IM, Montagu JD, Monserrat-Esteve S, Moore KE, Moroji T, Morselli PL, Mowbray RM, Munkvad I, Musacchio JM
Nahunek K, Navarro G, Niemegeers CJE, Nies A, Nikolova MP, Nodine JH
Oberholzer R, Oliverio A, Osmond H*
Papeschi R, Paes De Sousa MP*, Pekkarinen A, Pelc I, Perier M, Peron-Magnan P, Perris C*, Petersen PV*, Petkov V, Pfeiffer CC*, Pichler E, Poldinger W*, Polvan N, Porot M*, Protiva M*,
Radouco-Thomas C*, Radouco-Thomas S, Rafaelsen OJ*, Rainaut J, Randrup A, Ravn J, Rech RH, Rees L*, Rennert H, Revol L,Reyntjens A, Richter D, Rigal JM, Roos B-E, Ropert R, Rosic N, Roth LJ, Rothman T*, Ruther E
Saksena V, Salva JA, Samanin R, Saraf KR, Sarro R, Saxena B*, Sayers AC, Scheel-Kruger J, Schiele BC*, Schmitt W, Schulze H, Seiden LS, Shagass C*, Shaw DM, Sheth UK, Shopsin B, Siegel RK, Silverstone T, Simon P, Sirnes TB, Sjostrom R, Smythies J, Solti G, Soubrie P, Spence PJS, Spiegelberg U, St.Laurent J, Stark P*, Stolerman P, Stoll WA*, Stromgern E, Sugrue MF, Summerfield A, Sutter JM
Taeschler M, Takahashi R, Tedeschi DH*, Teller DN, Temkov I, Tesarova O, Tetreault L, Theobald W, Todrick A, Trabucchi E*
Ulett G, Unna KR, Usdin E*, Utena H
Valdecasas FG, Valzelli L, Van Andel H, Van der Horst L*, Van Rossum JM, Varga E, Veale WL, Vencovsky E*, Vinarova E, Voelkel A*, Vojtechovsky M, Volmat R, Von Kerekjarto M, Votava Z*
Watt DC, White RP, Wijesinghe CP, Wikler A*, Wilhelm M, Wilson CWM, Winkelman, NW, Wirth W, Wittenborn JR*, Wuttke W
Zapletalek M, Zarifian E
We are uncertain how many of those who are missing passed away, retired or just dropped their membership?
Ban TA, Hippius H, eds. Thirty Years CINP Berlin: Springer; 1988.
Ban TA, Hippius H, eds. (1992) Psychopharmacology in Perspective. Berlin: Springer; 1992.
Ban TA, Healy D, Shorter E, eds. The Rise of Psychopharamcology and the Story of CINP. Budapest: Animula; 1998.
Ban TA, Healy D, Shorter E, eds. The Triumph of Psychopharmacology and the Story of CINP. Budapest: Animula, 2000.
Ban TA, Healy D, Shorter E, eds. From Psychopharmacology to Neuropsychopharmacology in the 1980s and the Story of CINP. Budapest: Animula; 2002.
Ban TA, Healy D, Shorter E, eds. Reflections on Twentieth-Century Psychopharmacology. Budapest: Animula; 2004.
Thomas A. Ban
August 15, 2013
Barry Blackwell: The Lithium Controversy. A Historical Autopsy
Gordon Johnson’s comment on Janos Rado’s (January 25, 2018) final comment
Uncertainty concerning lithium’s effects on renal function are widespread and may adversely effect clinical management. As Rado notes lithium is the drug of first choice in long term prophylactic treatment in bipolar disorder requiring clinical and laboratory monitoring.
Thirst and increase of urine volume(polyuria)are two of the most frequently reported side effects.These changes are attributed to decreased responsiveness of the renal tubules to the antidiuretic hormone. This impairment of urinary concentrating ability is considered a reversible pharmacological-effect. Polyuria has been reported in upto 50% of patients; with polyuria greater than 3 litres per 24 hours in 20% of patients on long-term lithium therapy (Boton et. al 1987). Such increased urine volume carries a potential risk of toxicity to the patients because of sodium depletion, excessive fluid loss or reduced fluid intake.Progressive impairment may occur in some patients leading to a diabetes insipidus syndrome.
In 5to 10% of patients the impairment of concentrating ability may be irreversible or only partly reversible upon lithium discontinuation(Bendz 1983).
In contrast, glomerular function remains relatively unscathed(Johnson et al. 1984). There is an inverse correlation between maintenance plasma lithium levels and urinary concentrating ability and plasma levels should be kept at the lowest level consistent with adequate therapeutic effect.As renal tubular concentrations of lithium may be 10-20 times that in plasma what are moderate differences in plasma level will be considerably amplified at the tubular level.
Rado reports a case study in a patient with irreversible diabetes insipidus associated with lithium maintenance treated in a cross over study with high dose pitressin analogue alone and in combination with indomethacin or calcitonin. Excessive doses of desmopressin alone had an antidiuretic effect with decreased urine volume and increased osmolality the nonsteroidal drug indomethacin enhanced the effect while calcitonin abolished it.
The mechanisms involved remain unexplained. No adverse effects were noted. The diabetes insipidus persisted followinglithium discontinuation and remained unchanged overthreeyears. A small improvement in glomerular filtration was noted. This also remained unchanged over the three years.
This is an interesting report of effective treatment paradigm in severe lithium-induced diabetes insipidus and warrant s further investigation.
Risk factors associated with impaired renal function in patients on lithium are:
1 Current or previous episodes of lithium intoxication
2Lithium dose and plasma levels
3 Concomitant psychotropic medication
4 Cardiovascular disease
5. Age decline inGFR
There is no consistent evidence that differences in lithium preparations or dosage regimens effect renal function differentially. The clinical benefits obtained in the majority of patients far outweigh the identifiable risks of renal impairment.
Bendz H Kidney function in lithium treated patients. Acta Psychiat Scand1983; 68:303
Bendz H, Aurell M, Balldin J, Mathe A,Sjodin I. Kidney damage in long term lithium patients:A cross sectional study of patients with 15 years or more on lithium.Nephrol Dial Transplant 1994; 9:1250- 4.
Boton R,Gauiria M, Battle D. Prevalence,pathogenesis,and treatment of renal dysfunction associated with chronic lithium therapy.Amer. J Kidney Dis 1987; 10: 329- 45.
Johnson G. Lithium early development, toxicity and renal function Neuropsychopharmacology 1998; 19:200-5
Johnson G,Glenn E, Hunt G, Duggin G, Horvath JS,Tiller DJ. Renal function and lithium treatment:initial and follow up tests in Manic -Depressive patients. J. Affective Disorders 1984; 6: 249-63 1984.
July 5, 2018