Thomas A. Ban: In Historical Perspective: Peralta, Cuesta and their associate findings on the highest familiality of Leonhard’s classification in polynosologic study

Ernst Franzek’s comment on Larry Stein’s comment

The comment of Larry Stein is possibly based on a misunderstanding. Every publication on Leonhard’s group of schizophrenias state that the unsystematic forms have a very high familial loading in contrast to the systematic forms which are mostly sporadic. This is very important because it is postulated that systematic schizophrenias are possible to be degenerative illnesses of the highest psychological brain functions which override the basic (lower) neurological psychomotor systems (Franzek and Beckmann 1999; Kleist 1953; Teichmann 1990).



Franzek E, Beckmann H. Psychoses of the schizophrenic spectrum in twins. A discussion of the nature-nuture debate in the etiology of “endogenous psychoses”. Vienna, New York: Springer; 1999,

Kleist K.  Die Gliederung der neuropsychischen Erkrankungen. Monatschrift Psychiatrie Neurologie  1953; 125:526-554.

Teichmann G. The influence of Karl Kleist on the nosology of Karl Leonhard. Psychopathology 1990; 23:267-76.


Ernst Franzek

August 25, 2016