Psychopharmacology and the Classification of Functional Psychoses

By Thomas A. Ban and Bertalan Petho





                Multi-Axial Classifications

                Empiricistic, Experimental and Nosological Approaches

From One-Dimensional to Four Dimensional Classifications
Proposed Classifications: Supporting Data

Use of Terms: Psychosis, Endogenous, Psychogenic

Classification and Clinical Psychopharmacology



Research Criteria

Diagnostic Criteria for Research

Four-Dimensional Classification: Conceptual Development

                Concept of Psychosis

                Psychoses: Organic vs Functional
                               General Outline of Development

                               Acute Exogenous Predilectional Types

                               Chronic (Generalized) Dementias

                               Two-Dimensioal Diagnosis

                Functional Psychoses: Reactive vs Endogenous

                Psychogenic Psychoses

Delusional Psychoses

Delusional Development
Paranoia and Paraphrenia

Acute Delusional Psychoses

Chronic Delusional Psychoses

Psychopharmacologic Implications

                Endogenous Psychoses

                Affective Psychoses

                               Manic-Depressive Illness

                               Melancholia and Depressions

                                               Separation of Vital Depression

                                               Empiristic and Pragmatic Classifications

                                               Genetic and Experimental Classifications

                                               Nosological Classifications

                                               Psychophramacology and the Depressions

                                                               Cyclic Antidepressants

                                                               Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors

                                                               Pharmacotherapy of Depressions

                                               Mania and Euphorias

                               Schizophrenic Psychosis

                                               From Dementia Praecox to Schizophrenia

                                               From Schizophrenia to Schizophrenias

                                               Nonsystematic vs Systematic Schizophrenias

                                               Systematic Schizophrenias

                                               Systematic Catatonias

                                               Systematic Paraphrenias

                                               Systematic Hebephrenias

                               Nonsytematic Schizophrenias

                               Treatment of Schizophrenic Disorders

                                               Pharmacotherapy vs Other Treatments

                                               Pharmacotherapy with Antipsychotic-Neuroleptics

                                                               Neuroleptics and Etiological Speculations

                                                                               Dopamine: Excess or Deficiency

                                                                               Prostaglandins: Deficiency or Excess

                                                                               Endorphins: Excess or Deficiency

                                                               Neuroleptics: Long-term Effects
                                                               Neuroleptics and Leonhard’s Classification

                               Cycloid Psychoses

                                               Confusions Psychosis

                                               Motility Psychosis

                                               Anxiety-Happiness Psychosis

                                               Differential Characteristics

                                               Therapeutic Considerations


                Cross-Sectional Psychopathology

                Form of Onset

                Course of illness

Outcome or End State

                Effect of Pharmacotherapy


  1. Multiaxial Systems of Classifications (Tables, I,II,III,IV and V)
  2. Pharmacotherapy of Functional Psychoses (Tables I,II,III and IV)
  3. International Classification of Diseases (Table I)
  4. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of the American Psychiatric Association (Tables I, II, III and IV)
  5. Research Diagnostic Criteria (Tables I,II,III and IV)
  6. Classifications of Depressions (Figure 1 and Tables I,II,III and IV)
  7. Diagnostic Criteria of Schizophrenia (Tables I,II,III,IV and V)
  8. Classifications of Schizophrenia (Table I, II, III, IV and V)
  9. Guides to Leonhard’s Classification (Tables Ia, b,c and IIa,b,c)
  10. Cycloid Psychoses: Differential Characteristics (Tables I, II and III)