Camille Drach Hojaij: Stein and Empathic Fulfilment


Hector Warnes’ response to Carlos Hojaij’s reply



       I am most grateful for Professor Hojaij ́s brilliant comments on Greek Mythology and Clinical Psychiatry (the Phenomenological Approach). In the past we were taught not to identify with the patient's subjective world but rather maintain as Hojaij pointed out impartiality or neutrality. In the sixties the neutrality was replaced by the notion that greater empathy could be helpful to the psychotic patient.

       The use of psychedelics was fostered to live through the psychotic world and become familiar with its depersonalization (estrangement or alienation), change of selfhood, dream-like states, intensified perceptions or distorted memories, loss of boundaries (Apeiron), sense of oneness with the Universe or Mother Nature, Synesthesia, mystical experiences and at times loss of Reality Testing in the predisposed subjects. The notion of “splitting” means that two realities coexist in the schizophrenic patient: the autistic one and the shared one. Heraclitus distinguished between Koinos Kosmos (or shared world view) and Idios Kosmos (the unique, private world view).

       We have learned that we could experience a succession of self-states and that the enduring Self or Self-identity is often shifting though we must sustain a gregarious attachment to the social crowd which is not necessarily the basis of our authenticity. Neuroscience research has shown us that neuroplasticity is possible and desirable. It consists of neuronal facilitation (Bahnnung) of new and diverse connections (Carhart-Harris and Nutt 2017).



Carhart-Harris RL, Nutt DJ. Serotonin and brain function: a tale of two receptors. Psychopharmacol 2017;31(9):1091-1120.


September 30, 2021